5/22/2010

NU Congress, Western Sahara and Luluk Hamidah

Through a youth activist and intellectual Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), Luluk Hamidah, the issue of Western Sahara (Western Saharan) will become one-point recommendation to Congress-32 NU which lasted 22 to 28 March 2010 in Makassar. However, in its development, the issue of Western Sahara after Congress failed to get the attention muktamirin that failed also included in the recommendations NU Congress.

Whereas freedom fighters between the NU and the Western Sahara has been woven previous informal contacts. When Indonesia hosted the Conference on "Peace Building and Conflict Prevention in the Muslim Word" July 29 until August 1, 2008 which held NU, official delegations from the Western Sahara were present and active in campaigning for world peace.

The existence of Western Sahara

In general, the prevailing language in the Western Sahara is Arabic and Spanish. Capitals or the largest city Laayoune. Laayoune is also called Al-'Ajún is the most important city in Western Sahara. In Morocco the government version, the city of Laayoune status as a provincial town. Laayoune city began to grow in 1932 along with the discovery of water resources and became the center of Spanish colonial rule in Western Sahara before the year 1975. An estimated total population of the city of Laayoune approximately 190 thousand people.

Its president is Mohamed Abdel Aziz who was in exile, as well as with Prime Minister Abdelkader Taleb Oumar in exile. Currency accepted or widely used is the Moroccan Dirham (MAD). The total area of about 266 000 km with a population of approximately 267 405 inhabitants (July 2004). Western Sahara is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the world, even some level of data recorded as the lowest density.

Form of government is a "republic" with the name of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Because it is still occupied by Morocco, the Polisario liberation organization more prominent international role. Moroccan takeover of the Western Sahara region is also globally recognized not so many countries that support orgnaiasasi to demand independence Polisario liberation of Western Sahara.

Issues of independence

Western Sahara is one of the areas on the African continent that has not enjoyed the atmosphere of freedom. Countries bordering the north of Morocco and Algeria to the east was occupied by Morocco after Spain left the country in northwest Africa was in 1975. Morocco claims that the territory of Western Sahara is Moroccan empire occupied long before the colonial Spanish Morocco.

While the people of Western Sahara, which is represented by the Polisario independence demands. Polisario take low-level guerrilla war from 1975 to 1991. Many Western Saharan refugees living in refugee camps in Algeria. The UN cease-fire and then initiate the process is being handled by the United Nations (UN).

Case Western Sahara, East Timor case is similar to that previously demanded the United Nations held a referendum for self-government. Therefore, the Moroccan intense diplomatic approach to the issue of Indonesian independence of Western Sahara does not have the support of Indonesia. April 2007 In the past, Moroccan Foreign Minister, Mohammed Benaissa official visit to Indonesia related to the settlement of the Western Sahara.

When the Indonesian government to fight for special autonomy for East Timor in the decade of the 1990s, Morocco had approved the referendum for Western Sahara. Minurso, the UN mission that was assigned to carry out the referendum in Western Sahara did not do that because the dispute related to registration problems. In the last 15 years no progress means completion of the Western Sahara problem. Moreover Minurso mandate has run out since April 2007 so that the Moroccan initiative to offer a new concept for Western Sahara, namely autonomy.

After the termination of the mandate of Minurso, the UN Security Council lifted Peter van Walsum, a Dutch diplomat to become UN mediator. However, in its development negotiations led Peter to walk slowly and tend to favor Morocco, so angered the Polisario Front, a group, the Western Sahara. Peter criticized loudly by the Polisario on the reports to the UN Security Council in April 2008 that concluded that "the independence of Western Sahara is not realistic." Peter finally resigned as negotiator between the Polisario to Morocco.

In February 2010, the UN re-unite in an unofficial negotiating table between the Morocco and the Polisario Front independence movement. The two-day talks that ultimately failed to bring back the political interests of both parties. UN Secretary General Personal Envoy for Western Sahara, Christopher Ross, said in a statement at the end of the conversation was that "neither side would accept the proposal of other parties as a basis for continuing talks on the future." Mohammed Khadad, a senior Polisario official who attended the meeting in Armonk, explaining the various parties involved, Wednesday, focusing on issues of human rights and measures to build trust (Antaranews, 12/02/2010). Though these unofficial laws as a precondition to the fifth round of official talks between Morocco by the Polisario. Four previous round of negotiations which took place in Manhasest, New York in June 2007 failed to resolve the dispute.

Western Sahara unresolved settlement also led to estrangement between Morocco and Algeria. Algeria supports the Polisario as well as with South Africa and other countries. While the United States and France support the case of Morocco on Western Sahara, which has a rich potential of fisheries and mining, particularly phosphate.

The role of Indonesian

Western Sahara Communities need the attitude and role of Indonesia in the settlement of disputes with Morocco Polisario. As the state's anti-colonial, as set down in the fourth paragraph of the 1945 Constitution which reads, "" Behold, independence is the right of all nations, and therefore on the world of colonialism must be abolished because it is not in accordance with humanitarian and perikeadilan ", so Indonesia claimed consistency in play its international role.

Indonesia is very strategic position in the UN. Indonesia is the Chairman of the UN Special Committee on Decolonisation Affairs (C24) as well as non-permanent member of UN Security Council. These positions enable Indonesia to implement the spirit of anti-colonialism in solving the case of Western Sahara. Indonesia was the last time a member of UN security council at the time of Adam Malik as Foreign Minister of Indonesia in the 1970s. UN Security Council is the UN agency which has the strongest in the decisions that must be implemented by all members under the UN Charter.

In addition, the position of Indonesia with a Muslim majority population can also be regarded as a representation of Muslim countries. OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference) as an organization-member countries and Muslim countries some of them are still involved in armed conflicts. During this time, almost no representation UNSC members are able to bring the aspirations of Muslim countries to the dispute was in United Nations forums.

See the position of Indonesia, the Western Sahara liberation fighters approached the Government of Indonesia to attempt to voice their aspirations in a UN forum in the bilateral relations. One of the interest groups and civil society organizations that can influence government policy is Nahdatul Ulama Indonesia, which performs the 32nd Congress. However, NU has not seemed able to accommodate and fight for the fate of Muslims in Western Sahara to be able to feel their independence.

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