5/22/2010

NU Congress, Western Sahara and Luluk Hamidah

Through a youth activist and intellectual Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), Luluk Hamidah, the issue of Western Sahara (Western Saharan) will become one-point recommendation to Congress-32 NU which lasted 22 to 28 March 2010 in Makassar. However, in its development, the issue of Western Sahara after Congress failed to get the attention muktamirin that failed also included in the recommendations NU Congress.

Whereas freedom fighters between the NU and the Western Sahara has been woven previous informal contacts. When Indonesia hosted the Conference on "Peace Building and Conflict Prevention in the Muslim Word" July 29 until August 1, 2008 which held NU, official delegations from the Western Sahara were present and active in campaigning for world peace.

The existence of Western Sahara

In general, the prevailing language in the Western Sahara is Arabic and Spanish. Capitals or the largest city Laayoune. Laayoune is also called Al-'Ajún is the most important city in Western Sahara. In Morocco the government version, the city of Laayoune status as a provincial town. Laayoune city began to grow in 1932 along with the discovery of water resources and became the center of Spanish colonial rule in Western Sahara before the year 1975. An estimated total population of the city of Laayoune approximately 190 thousand people.

Its president is Mohamed Abdel Aziz who was in exile, as well as with Prime Minister Abdelkader Taleb Oumar in exile. Currency accepted or widely used is the Moroccan Dirham (MAD). The total area of about 266 000 km with a population of approximately 267 405 inhabitants (July 2004). Western Sahara is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the world, even some level of data recorded as the lowest density.

Form of government is a "republic" with the name of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Because it is still occupied by Morocco, the Polisario liberation organization more prominent international role. Moroccan takeover of the Western Sahara region is also globally recognized not so many countries that support orgnaiasasi to demand independence Polisario liberation of Western Sahara.

Issues of independence

Western Sahara is one of the areas on the African continent that has not enjoyed the atmosphere of freedom. Countries bordering the north of Morocco and Algeria to the east was occupied by Morocco after Spain left the country in northwest Africa was in 1975. Morocco claims that the territory of Western Sahara is Moroccan empire occupied long before the colonial Spanish Morocco.

While the people of Western Sahara, which is represented by the Polisario independence demands. Polisario take low-level guerrilla war from 1975 to 1991. Many Western Saharan refugees living in refugee camps in Algeria. The UN cease-fire and then initiate the process is being handled by the United Nations (UN).

Case Western Sahara, East Timor case is similar to that previously demanded the United Nations held a referendum for self-government. Therefore, the Moroccan intense diplomatic approach to the issue of Indonesian independence of Western Sahara does not have the support of Indonesia. April 2007 In the past, Moroccan Foreign Minister, Mohammed Benaissa official visit to Indonesia related to the settlement of the Western Sahara.

When the Indonesian government to fight for special autonomy for East Timor in the decade of the 1990s, Morocco had approved the referendum for Western Sahara. Minurso, the UN mission that was assigned to carry out the referendum in Western Sahara did not do that because the dispute related to registration problems. In the last 15 years no progress means completion of the Western Sahara problem. Moreover Minurso mandate has run out since April 2007 so that the Moroccan initiative to offer a new concept for Western Sahara, namely autonomy.

After the termination of the mandate of Minurso, the UN Security Council lifted Peter van Walsum, a Dutch diplomat to become UN mediator. However, in its development negotiations led Peter to walk slowly and tend to favor Morocco, so angered the Polisario Front, a group, the Western Sahara. Peter criticized loudly by the Polisario on the reports to the UN Security Council in April 2008 that concluded that "the independence of Western Sahara is not realistic." Peter finally resigned as negotiator between the Polisario to Morocco.

In February 2010, the UN re-unite in an unofficial negotiating table between the Morocco and the Polisario Front independence movement. The two-day talks that ultimately failed to bring back the political interests of both parties. UN Secretary General Personal Envoy for Western Sahara, Christopher Ross, said in a statement at the end of the conversation was that "neither side would accept the proposal of other parties as a basis for continuing talks on the future." Mohammed Khadad, a senior Polisario official who attended the meeting in Armonk, explaining the various parties involved, Wednesday, focusing on issues of human rights and measures to build trust (Antaranews, 12/02/2010). Though these unofficial laws as a precondition to the fifth round of official talks between Morocco by the Polisario. Four previous round of negotiations which took place in Manhasest, New York in June 2007 failed to resolve the dispute.

Western Sahara unresolved settlement also led to estrangement between Morocco and Algeria. Algeria supports the Polisario as well as with South Africa and other countries. While the United States and France support the case of Morocco on Western Sahara, which has a rich potential of fisheries and mining, particularly phosphate.

The role of Indonesian

Western Sahara Communities need the attitude and role of Indonesia in the settlement of disputes with Morocco Polisario. As the state's anti-colonial, as set down in the fourth paragraph of the 1945 Constitution which reads, "" Behold, independence is the right of all nations, and therefore on the world of colonialism must be abolished because it is not in accordance with humanitarian and perikeadilan ", so Indonesia claimed consistency in play its international role.

Indonesia is very strategic position in the UN. Indonesia is the Chairman of the UN Special Committee on Decolonisation Affairs (C24) as well as non-permanent member of UN Security Council. These positions enable Indonesia to implement the spirit of anti-colonialism in solving the case of Western Sahara. Indonesia was the last time a member of UN security council at the time of Adam Malik as Foreign Minister of Indonesia in the 1970s. UN Security Council is the UN agency which has the strongest in the decisions that must be implemented by all members under the UN Charter.

In addition, the position of Indonesia with a Muslim majority population can also be regarded as a representation of Muslim countries. OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference) as an organization-member countries and Muslim countries some of them are still involved in armed conflicts. During this time, almost no representation UNSC members are able to bring the aspirations of Muslim countries to the dispute was in United Nations forums.

See the position of Indonesia, the Western Sahara liberation fighters approached the Government of Indonesia to attempt to voice their aspirations in a UN forum in the bilateral relations. One of the interest groups and civil society organizations that can influence government policy is Nahdatul Ulama Indonesia, which performs the 32nd Congress. However, NU has not seemed able to accommodate and fight for the fate of Muslims in Western Sahara to be able to feel their independence.

5/21/2010

Exit Strategy of the Snare SMI Century Scandal

Appointment of Sri Mulyani Indrawati (SMI) Managing Director positions World Bank at the time tormented by the threat of jail in the country over the case of Century Bank bailout scandal suddenly become discuss warm throughout the country. For the World Bank, the SMI is considered successful mission to expand the World Bank in Indonesia remains a country with a debtor (the debtor), the World Bank up to above 40 percent during the SMI became Minister of Finance. When nominalize around Rp. 2000 trillion, with a portion of the debt 90 percent of World Bank debt. SMI is considered meritorious for the World Bank because of the neighboring countries like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand have managed to break away from the World Bank debt. Likewise, in countries elsewhere, such as in Latin American countries and Iran.

Data Bank Indonesia until the end of January 2010, Indonesia's foreign debt reached U.S. $ 174.041 billion or Rp. Trillion by 2000 exchange rate of Rp 10,000 per U.S. dollar. If specified debt, government debt amounted to 93.859 billion U.S. dollars, the private debt of non-bank corporate alias of 75.199 billion U.S. dollars and bank debt amounted to 8.984 billion U.S. dollars. When compared between the end of January 2009 to the end of January 2010, an increase of 17.55 percent of debt value. If divided by 220 million Indonesian population, then the debt every citizen in Indonesia, including babies and grandmothers are around Rp. 14 million per head.

Debt is one of the West imperialme strategy towards developing countries which have rich natural resources. Joseph Stiglitz says there are four steps to mastering the World Bank's strategy of developing countries, namely privatization, capital market liberalization, market pricing, and free trade. The privatization scenario, the leader of the target countries will be offered a 10 percent commission to sell national assets and store it safely in bank accounts in Switzerland. On the strategy of capital market liberalization, foreign funds should be exempted from entry through the capital market to speculate in real estate and currency. When things looked promising, the money is pulled out to create economic chaos. Who's on the market pricing scenario, prices of food, water and gas that causes increased social unrest which led to riots. Riots will cause capital flight and the government but lucrative corporate bankruptcy of the capitalist West for the target country's assets can be bought very cheap price. Last step for free trade, the phase in which the corporation will enter the Western capitalist countries taget market in Asia, Latin America, and Africa at the time still wore their own tariffs for agricultural products into a third world country. They wore very high prices for branded drugs and causing death and disease rates are very high.

The position of Managing Director of the World Bank in fact is not a prestigious position that his salary should be proud of a very prestigious approximately U.S. $ 347,000 per year. World Bank Managing Director position has been filled by former Minister of regular finance from third world countries, mainly former finance ministers from Latin American countries. Currently, three Managing Directors of the World Bank, all of them filled by people coming from developing countries, namely from Nigeria, and Indonesia Elsalvador own. The position of Managing Director of the World Bank were taken from countries which are outside the mainstream of countries the global economy.

Historically, the presence of the World Bank which is now led by Robert Zoellick as the President was not for the purpose of humanitarian welfare of all people in the world. The World Bank was born to the interests of Western countries who embrace the capitalist system to strengthen its hegemony over the world through capitalist economic system. Therefore, the state-engara who became major borrowers from the World Bank is the third world countries who always maintained that poverty is always dependent on World Bank loans, such as Indonesia. Though Indonesia had expelled the IMF spectacular achievements of Indonesia, but failed at the World Bank.

SBY Political Expenses
Since the scandal erupted Century Bank, SMI as the main accused in addition to Boediono, the vice president now. SMI president concerned that the storm was far away from the vortex of the scandal that now the ball century heat in the hands of the KPK. Some times the presence of SMI in parliament gets a boycott of the politicians supporting disclosure Century Bank scandal. Members of Parliament walked out of action that was driven from the PDI-P politicians and Hanura indicate that the hot coals Century has not abated despite Idrus Marham has successfully rid the Commission's hand through the completion of legal, not political settlement in the form of impeachment.

The fact that politics would become a political burden for Yudhoyono and party supporters and his coalition parties. The presence of SMI can be considered no longer productive in supporting the political conditions are stable. SMI is not degenerate so that when in-reshufle in the cabinet, the World Bank SBY as a partner makes an elegant SMI rescue scenarios. The result, an impression which emerged in the eyes of the public are not deposed but SMI increased the degree to World Bank officials. This scenario is very beneficial to SBY, and also save the SMI from the pursuit of the KPK to investigate. Moreover, the KPK checked SMI went way beyond decency SMI workplace, not a call to the office as the unexpected KPK other perpetrators of corruption.

To that end, the President of the World Bank makes an interesting story about Sri Mulyani performance during the Ministry of Finance. Robert Zoellick, the president's success rate Sri Mulyani Indonesian guide through the global recession, a successful fight against corruption and strengthening good governance so many countries in the world respect to Sri Mulyani. Top performance, Sri Mulyani worthy of being a managing director who oversees the World Bank Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific.
Apart from the viewpoint of the World Bank and political interests SBY, Sri Mulyani mystical atmosphere should also receive attention. Century Bank scandal seems to be a heavy burden for him as the main accused and has been a recommendation of the House Special Committee Rights Questionnaire Century, when the regime enjoyed the SBY-Boediono all who are in the cabinet and government at the central level. Moreover, when the Sri Mulyani have languished in prison for a scandal Century Bank, so that Sri Mulyani search for self-preservation point by accepting the proposal from the World Bank.

Sri Mulyani signal reluctance to bear the heavy burden of scandal Century when it issued a statement recorded by the lack of legal certainty in this country. This statement came out because it knew he would be made a scapegoat for the scandal Century. Meanwhile, Sri Mulyani is a true professional with a proven record and reputation in professional field. Despite the field's professional or criticized people enjoyed a lot of people a lot because it is associated with the ideology of neoliberalism that dianutrnya.

Resulting from the resignation of Sri Mulyani become a public question mark: whether Sri Mulyani backdated by the president off the hook for Century Bank scandal, or resign because of his own desires, or hijacked World Bank? How would, if members of the UN suddenly unanimously appointed President Yudhoyono became UN chief, whether he should resign as President?